This is caused by an infection with mycobacterium ulcerans. Buruli ulcer often starts as a painless swelling (nodule), a large painless area of induration (plaque) or a diffuse painless swelling of the legs, arms or face (oedema). The disease may progress with no pain and fever. Without treatment or sometimes during antibiotics treatment, the nodule, plaque or oedema will ulcerate within 4 weeks. Bone is occasionally affected, causing deformities. This neglected tropical disease has been reported in 33 countries but transmission (and prevention) is poorly understood, and it is a very under-researched disease.