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MEDizzy is the world’s fastest growing medical learning community. Together with our network of partners we educate over 10 million now and future healthcare professionals.We provide an innovative technology designed to enable quick and easy access to the latest medical knowledge. We offer unique medical learning experience appreciated by HCPs from over 120 countries.
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Browse Latest MCQ Questions

Browse through thousands of multiple-choice question quizzes and expand your knowledge! MCQs are a great way to prepare for your incoming exams!
Nephrology and urology
Which of the following statements is true regarding erectile dysfunction (ED)?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 54 year old female has stress incontinence proven by urodynamics. What is the most appropriate initial management?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 81 year old man attends as an emergency having passed nothing more than 50 mL of urine for 2 days. He has nocturnal enuresis, a palpable bladder and a creatinine of 378 μmol/L (4.28 mg/dL). What is the most appropriate initial management?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
In a 67 year old man with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) who has a large prostate (70 cc) and is already treated with an α-blocker but with ongoing bothersome symptoms of hesitancy and poor flow, which of the following options is most appropriate?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
An 18 year old male presents with long-standing mild left testicular pain, with a hard 1-cm lump in the testicle. What is the most appropriate course of action?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
What is the most appropriate set of investigations for a 71 year old male smoker who presents with dysuria and the family physician identifies persistent non-visible haematuria?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A healthy 81 year old man presents with back pain to his family physician. A PSA is undertaken, which measures 2350 ng/mL. The patient is referred to a urologist who identifies a craggy, hard prostate gland and undertakes a bone scan, which shows multiple bone metastases. What is the best treatment option for this man?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 72 year old fit ex-smoking man is identified on flexible cystoscopy to have a 4-cm bladder tumour. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumour provides tissue that on pathological examination shows a G3pT2 urothelial cell cancer. What is the optimal management for this muscle-invasive cancer?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 49 year old woman presents with visible haematuria. A cystoscopy is normal, but a contract-enhanced CT scan of chest, abdomen, pelvis reveals a 17-cm left renal mass, consistent with a renal cell cancer. What is the best treatment option for this woman?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
Following a trial of treatment with α-adrenoceptor antagonist (α-blocker) medication, a 65 year old man is referred by his family physician to urology with poor flow, terminal dribbling and hesitancy. Which of the following is the most relevant investigation?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
In which of the following situations would you consider treating an asymptomatic patient identified to have >105 E. coli/mL urine?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 27 year old woman presents as an emergency with rigors, flank pain and fever. Non-contrast CTKUB reveals an 8-mm stone in the left mid-ureter. Which is the optimal management option?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
What is the most likely cause of painless, visible haematuria in a 60 year old man?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 25 year old woman from Uganda who has recently delivered a baby presents with new continuous incontinence. What is she likely to be suffering with?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
What is the optimal imaging to rule out bone metastases in a man with prostate cancer?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
Regarding micturition, which of these statements is correct?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 64 year old man has osteoarthritis in his knees and is prescribed ibuprofen regularly for 3 months. He notices some swelling in his ankles and his family physician finds his urine dipstick reveals 4+ protein with no blood or white cells. His creatinine is normal and his serum albumin is 190 g/L. A renal biopsy is performed. What is the light microscopy likely to reveal?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 75 year old man with hypertension, heart failure, peptic ulcer disease and osteoarthritis presents with acute kidney injury after being prescribed ibuprofen. His usual medicines are lisinopril, furosemide, omeprazole and atorvastatin. He has 1+ proteinuria and no haematuria on dipstick. What is the mechanism underlying his renal failure?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 65 year man presents with flank discomfort and haematuria. He is found to have bilateral polycystic kidneys and some liver cysts on ultrasound scan. His renal function is normal, with an eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 . He gives a family history on his mother’s side of ‘cysts in the kidney’ but no family member ever needed dialysis or a transplant. Which of the following is true about his disease?
Explanation
Explanation
Nephrology and urology
A 20 year old woman has a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APKD) on her father’s side. Her paternal grandmother and her father’s brother both died suddenly in their 50s. What was the likely cause of death?
Explanation
Explanation
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