MEDizzy
MEDizzy
Abeer Fatima
Abeer Fatima2 months ago
Modern Biomarkers for Differentiating Between Viral and Bacterial Infections in Children

Modern Biomarkers for Differentiating Between Viral and Bacterial Infections in Children

Owing to similarity in symptoms of bacterial vs viral infection, there is a compelling need to develop point-of-care testing (POCT) that involves easy specimen collection and rapid diagnosis. Newer modalities are directed at detecting the host-derived biomarkers in order to differentiate between viral and bacterial infections. The techniques employed in determining the causative agents of infection usually involve bacterial culture, PCR, radiographic imaging, microscopy, and biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, among others. However, they all come with their fors and against with respect to the time taken for diagnosis and the sensitivity and specificity. In addition to already established biomarkers of bacterial infections such as CRP and Procalcitonin, newer potential biomarkers that include IL-27, CD35, CD64, presepsin, and pro-adrenomedullin (proADM) show promising future when it comes to rapid and accurate diagnosis of bacterial agents. However, these biomarkers are still being studied in larger populations. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) are activated in response to viral infections. Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a newer biomarker employed in diagnosis of viral vs bacterial cause. Superior to single biomarker testing is a test that involves detection of multiple biomarkers at the same time. The combination of TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP has 93.5% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity. The advancement in diagnostic technologies is still underway. The aim of these contemporary biomarkers is accurate diagnosis of viral vs bacterial infection. Distinction is also important to devise a proper management plan and to avoid unmerited use of antibiotics in population. Source Differential Markers of Bacterial and Viral Infections in Children for Point-of-Care Testing https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471491420302215 Image via https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/bacterial-vs-viral-infections

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