Spina bifida refers to any congenital condition (birth defect) in which the neural tube in the area of the spine doesn’t close completely. Spina bifida can happen anywhere along your child’s spine if the neural tube doesn’t close all the way in utero (in your uterus). When this happens, their backbone, which protects their spinal cord, doesn’t form and close as it should. This often results in damage to your child’s spinal cord and nerves. Myelomeningocele is a type of spina bifida — the most severe type. It results in a fluid-filled sac that protrudes from your baby’s back that contains part of their spinal cord and nerves. Other types of spina bifida include meningocele and spina bifida occulta.