ECHINOCOCCOSIS An infection with larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Symptoms and Signs: 1.Asymptomatic--abdominal pain or a palpable mass. 2.Symptomatic-- jaundice if the bile duct is obstructed, fever, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, urticaria, bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis: 1.Imaging--CT, MRI, and ultrasound findings of the abdomen. 2.Serologic testing--enzyme immunoassay, indirect hemagglutination assay. 3.Examination of cyst fluid Treatment :1.Observation only for asymptomatic cysts. 2.Surgical resection (percutaneous aspiration and reaspiration (PAIR 3.Medical drugs--Albendazole. 4. Liver transplant.