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Abeer Fatima
Abeer Fatimaover 1 year ago
Cause of Cherry-Red Spots at Macula

Cause of Cherry-Red Spots at Macula

Cherry-red spots appears as reddish area in the macula; they may be surrounded by opacified retina in some disorders. The etiology of cherry-red spots ranges from some harmless disorders to life-threatening diseases. 1. CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION The cause of central retinal artery occlusion is embolism, which results in unilateral, sudden loss of vision, usually in elderly population. The etiology may also be inflammatory, such as giant cell arteritis. 2. TAY-SACHS DISEASE Deficiency of alpha subunit of hexosaminidase results in abnormal accumulation of gangliosides in brain and retina. Presence of cherry red spot on macula is characteristic finding in Tay-Sachs disease. 3. SANDHOFF DISEASE Sandhoff disease occur due to mutation of beta subunit of hexosaminidase. Cherry-red spots are present in majority of cases. Other clinical features resemble Tay-Sachs disease. 4. COMMOTIO RETINAE Blunt trauma to eye may result in opacification of retina. If this whitening surround macula on periphery, it presents a pseudo-cherry red spot. 5. NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE Majority of children with Niemann-Pick disease, Type A has cherry red spots, whereas approximately one-third of children with Niemann-Pick Type B disease has cherry-red spots on macula. 6. GENERALIZED GANGLIOSIDOSIS Also known as Landing disease, it results from deficiency of beta-galactosidase. Cherry-red spots are present in almost half of the cases. 7. SIALIDOSIS / MUCOLIPIDOSIS Sialidosis type I or cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome presents with gait disturbance, ataxia, seizure, and cherry-red spot on macula. 8. FARBER LIPOGRANULOMATOSIS Apart from typical triad of painful swollen joints, subcutaneous nodules, and hoarse sound secondary to laryngeal nodules, cherry-red spots may also be seen on macula. 9. RETINITIS If retinitis involves central retina, including progressive outer retinal necrosis, cherry-red spots may be seen. 10. DRUG TOXICITY Toxicity of various drugs may cause cherry red spots on macula. Most common among them are quinine, dapsone, and intravitreal gentamicin. 11. POISOINING Carbon monoxide poisoning cause cherry red spots on macula. Source Cherry Red Spot https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539841/ Image via https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214426916300738

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