A group of symptoms that occur in women, typically between ovulation and a period. The cause isn't fully understood but likely involves changes in hormones during the menstrual cycle Includes mood swings , tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, depression and irritability.
Dense white mature cataract
The most clear magnified view of a dense white mature cataract! •Cataract: Cataract means clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. The human lens is composed of proteins arranged in a specific way to keep it clear and allow light to pass through. It then focuses all the light to the retina, which then sends signals to the fovea centralis (in the macula lutea) and optic nerve to produce vision. As we age, however, it is believed that those proteins clump together, causing a "cloud" to form. When the lens becomes opaque, or cloudy/foggy, most of its refractory properties are lost and light has a difficult time getting through. This adulterates the signals sent to the receptors, resulting in vision described as if looking through a steamy mirror or foggy window. Most cataracts are slow and due to aging. It can also be formed by disease such as diabetes, smoking/alcohol use, and prolonged exposure to UV sunlight. •Signs and sumptoms: Common signs and symptoms include cloudy/blurry vision, complaint of faded colors, double vision in one or both eyes, poor night vision. A halo around the pupil may also be found upon physical examination. •Treatment: Treatments most often include lens replacement. During cataract surgery, the cloudy lens is removed or cleaned out and replaced by a clear man made lens. Most cataract surgeries are done with a technique called phacoemulsification, also called "small cut cataract surgery."
Peptic ulcer treatment
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Cancer - Introduction I
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Midline suboccipital craniotomy and direct stimulation for a dorsally exophytic brainstem tumor
Dorsally exophytic brainstem tumors arise from within the brainstem itself. As the tumor grows, it pulls eloquent tissue with it, resulting in a shape that is analogous to the sides of a volcano. Rather than a resection that is flush with the brainstem being performed, this functional tissue on the lateral edges of the tumor must be identified and preserved in order to avoid postoperative deficits. The authors describe a midline, suboccipital approach with the use of intraoperative direct stimulation to identify and preserve functional tissue innervating the palate during the resection of a dorsally exophytic medullary tumor. **Intro music: "Daybreak" by Graeme Rosner
The Patient is 27y/o, a previous H/o HBV Hepatitis. The Hepatitis has been treated 3 years ago. There has been Blood in Vomitting i.e. Hematemesis both Bright Red and Dark Red alternatively. These sheddings were found in Faeces of patient. Please help with Diagnosis.
Fatma R. Badr
Honestly, This post is copied from Quora .
What is caput medusae?
It's a consequence of cirrhosis of the liver, and a very sinister sign. Normally the entire venous drainage of the gastrointestinal tract passes to the hepatic portal vein, and thence through the liver before rejoining the general venous return to the heart via the inferior vena cava. It has to do this because many of the compounds absorbed from the gut are toxic, & need to be detoxified by the liver before entering the systemic circulation. Hepatic cirrhosis blocks the entry of blood from the portal vein into liver tissue, causing Portal hypertension. The raised pressure in the portal system causes collateral venous drainage to open up, at 3 sites marking the divide between drainage to the portal & general venous systems. These are the junction between stomach & oesophagus, the anal margin & the umbilicus. Typically patients notice haemorrhoids and veins in the skin radiating outwards from the umbilicus. This is because raised portal pressure reopens the fetal umbilical vein, filling it retrogradely into cutaneous veins. More the point, if these are present, so will large veins be present in the oesophagus. These esophageal varices have a habit of rupturing & bleeding, potentially fatallly unless surgical intervention is promptly available. Even if that doesn’t happen the combination of jaundice & dementia from toxins that have bypassed the liver make death from hepatic failure a singularly degrading & unpleasant way to go. That was the fate of 95% of the alcoholic patients I treated in my career. Several even destroyed transplanted livers just as they had their originals. Early clinicians, lacking technological means of making a diagnosis set great store by observing, collecting, interpreting & teaching symptoms & clinical signs that could be used to deduce the underlying condition. The learning of these skills is still the focus of medical school training today. The appearance of numerous large peri-umbilical veins was soon associated with incipient liver failure. It's doom-laden significance & resemblance to a bunch of snakes reminded those early clinicians of the legend of the deadly gorgons, & Medusa with snakes for hair, so caput Medusae, Latin for “Head of Medusa".
Found this on Pinterest
Mar 19, 2019 - Discover Osteodouce : a serious and powerful healing method to harmonize the body structure without contact using the Universal Energy. Treatments and Private courses online via Skype.
Severe frostbite in extreme altitude climber (Mt. Everest).
. A 54-year-old American man summited Everest. During descent, he realized that his hands and feet, particularly the right hand and right foot, were frozen. During the summit push, he used only his right hand to hold onto the ropes. He rewarmed his right hand and right foot at camp 4 (8000 m). The next day, he walked to camp 2 (6400 m) and was evacuated to Kathmandu. He was not sure if refreezing might have occurred during descent to camp 2. He had been taking 80 mg of aspirin, a potassium supplement, and a multivitamin daily, and an occasional acetazolamide. On admission, the right foot had black discoloration of all 5 toes extending up to the proximal phalanx, consistent with grade 3 injuries. Similar frostbite injuries were also noted in the second through fifth fingers of the right hand and third finger of the left hand consistent with grade 2 injuries of 5 digits (images of hands not shown). Technetium-99 scintigraphy done immediately after patient arrival (vascular phase only) showed no perfusion in the toes of the right foot, nor in the 5 affected fingers. Time from injury to iloprost was between 48 and 52 h. Iloprost infusion was started and continued for 5 d. He experienced symptoms of flushing and headaches during infusion that required dose reduction during the first 2 days and symptoms resolved. At 3 months, 8 of 10 of his frostbitten digits were partially amputated. Credit: @medicase_original
✨The retina is a thin delicate lining, like wallpaper, on the inside back wall of the eye. The retina is responsible for the sense of vision. Similar to the film of a camera, it captures focused images and sends the information via the optic nerve to the brain which processes the information. Without the retina, you would not see. The center of the retina, the macula, is used for detailed work and reading. The peripheral portion of the retina is responsible for peripheral vision. ✨Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is the deterioration of the macula that results in impaired central vision. AMD is the number one cause of blindness in people over the age of 55. Factors that increase the chance of having macular degeneration include age, Northern European heritage and smoking. ✨Dry AMD, when the retina and layer underneath it become thin, is the most common type of macular degeneration. This usually progresses slowly and visual deterioration is usually milder in this form. Wet AMD affects 10% of people with macular degeneration and is more severe. In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels develop and leak fluid and blood into the retina causing scarring and loss of central vision.
RETINA and its Complications.
Fatma R. Badr
You can spend a lifetime studying the liver and still not understand all of its functions ✨
Feel like a dishwasher in all my lab classes haha
Case of billateral necrotizing fasciitis post debridement surgery showing muscle exposure.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive inflammatory infection of the fascia, with secondary necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues. Symptoms may include fever, swelling, and complaint of excessive pain. The initial skin changes are similar to cellulitis or abscess, thus making the diagnosis at early stages difficult. The redness and swelling usually blend into surrounding normal tissues. The overlying skin may appear shiny and tense. Other signs which are more suggestive of necrotizing changes (but present in later stages) are: formation of bullae, bleeding into the skin which is present before skin necrosis (skin turning from red to purple and black due to thrombosis of blood vessels), presence of gas in tissues, and reduced or absent sensation over the skin (due to the necrosis of the underlying nerves). Early diagnosis is difficult, as the disease often looks early on like a simple superficial skin infection. While a number of laboratory and imaging modalities can raise the suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis, none can rule it out. The gold standard for diagnosis is a surgical exploration in a setting of high suspicion. Surgical debridement (cutting away affected tissue) is the mainstay of treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. Aggressive wound debridement should be performed early, usually as soon as the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection is made. Early medical treatment is often presumptive; thus, antibiotics should be started as soon as this condition is suspected. Tissue cultures (rather than wound swabs) are taken to determine appropriate antibiotic coverage. Besides blood pressure control and hydration, support should be initiated for those with unstable vital signs and low urine output.
Autoimmune disease affecting lung alveoli and renal glomeruli.
Dr Bilal Amin
this hand was successfully implanted to its origional place.
Arch of aorta
Total femur replacement surgery due to a chondrosarcoma - a metastatic bone cancer!
This surgery, also knows as femur arthroplasty, is commonly done after a neoplastic involvement of the bone. It represents an important surgical option in limb salvage reconstruction, with most recognized applications in oncologic reconstruction. In the past, patients with cancer of the femur were advised to undergo a hip disarticulation or transfemoral amputation. It is now feasible to salvage the limb in selected patients, by excising the entire femur together with any contiguous soft tissue tumor and replacing it with an endoprosthesis.This patient suffered from a chondrosarcoma, an aggressive cancer that may occur in any bone, especially the pelvic, shoulder and lower limb bones. It is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which makes it challenging to deal with and makes surgery mandatory. A limb-sparing operation, seen above, is done in such cases when amputation is avoidable.
Cranial nerve roots
Great illustration of the cranial nerve roots : Cranial nerves (sometimes also termed cerebral nerves), are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, specifically from the fore-brain and brainstem, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from various segments of the spinal cord. It is through the cranial nerves that the brain receives information from, and issues controls of functions of various structures, primarily of the head and neck. Since spinal nerves reach only to the level of the first cervical vertebra, thus the cranial nerves fill the same role above this level, as spinal nerves do below the head and neck. Each cranial nerve is paired on the left and right. In humans, there are twelve pairs which are assigned roman numerals according to the order in which they originate from rostral to caudal. An additional pair of cranial nerves, termed cranial nerve zero (CN 0), was first discovered in sharks; its presence in humans remains a matter of debate. Cranial nerves 0, I and II emerge from the cerebrum; the remaining ten pairs emerge from the brainstem. The cranial nerves are components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with the exception of cranial nerve II (the optic nerve), which is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon leading to the retina; both the optic nerve and the retina are hence part of the central nervous system (CNS). The axons of the remaining twelve nerves extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS. The central ganglia of the cranial nerves or cranial nerve nuclei originate in the CNS, preferentially from the brain stem. 📷•Medicogram• #letslearn #cranialnerves #neuroscience #neuro #surgery #medicine #brain #trending #now #medicogram
Large facial tumour
A female skull dating from 1829 with the bony skeleton of a large facial tumour (possibly caused by neurofibromatosis) involving the right side of the face. The tumour arose in the right antrum, and during five years’ growth destroyed the right malar bone, the palate, and the maxilla. Specimen from the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London.
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