Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of tumors and fluid-filled sacs (cysts) in many different parts of the body. Tumors may be either noncancerous or cancerous and most frequently appear during young adulthood; however, the signs and symptoms of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome can occur throughout life.
Tumors called hemangioblastomas are characteristic of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. These growths are made of newly formed blood vessels. Although they are typically noncancerous, they can cause serious or life-threatening complications. Hemangioblastomas that develop in the brain and spinal cord can cause headaches, vomiting, weakness, and a loss of muscle coordination (ataxia). Hemangioblastomas can also occur in the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (the retina). These tumors, which are also called retinal angiomas, may cause vision loss.
People with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome commonly develop cysts in the kidneys, pancreas, and genital tract. They are also at an increased risk of developing a type of kidney cancer called clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a type of pancreatic cancer called a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is associated with a type of tumor called a pheochromocytoma, which most commonly occurs in the adrenal glands (small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney). Pheochromocytomas are usually noncancerous. They may cause no symptoms, but in some cases they are associated with headaches, panic attacks, excess sweating, or dangerously high blood pressure that may not respond to medication. Pheochromocytomas are particularly dangerous in times of stress or trauma, such as when undergoing surgery or in an accident, or during pregnancy.
About 10 percent of people with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome develop endolymphatic sac tumors, which are noncancerous tumors in the inner ear. These growths can cause hearing loss in one or both ears, as well as ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and problems with balance. Without treatment, these tumors can cause sudden profound deafness.
Noncancerous tumors may also develop in the liver and lungs in people with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. These tumors do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. A giant step for mankind - 3D printed human heart!!!
For the first time in recorded history, Israeli scientists at Tel Aviv University have created a working, vascularized engineered heart using human cells by printing it in 3D — a stunning achievement that could change the world of medicine by ending the reliance on donated organs.
The world’s first “printed heart” was made with actual human biological material, although only about the size of a rabbit’s heart, making it too small for a human. But the achievement demonstrates the potential for being able to 3D print full-sized organs one day.
This is the first time anyone anywhere has successfully engineered and printed an entire heart replete with cells, blood vessels, ventricles and chambers.
To create the 3D printed heart, a biopsy of fatty tissue was taken from patients. The cellular and a-cellular materials of the tissue were then separated. While the cells were reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules such as collagen and glycoproteins, were processed into a personalized hydrogel that served as the printing “ink.”
After being mixed with the hydrogel, the cells were efficiently differentiated to cardiac or endothelial cells to create patient-specific, immune-compatible cardiac patches with blood vessels and, subsequently, an entire heart.
The researchers are now planning on culturing the printed hearts in the lab and “teaching them to behave” like hearts. They then plan to transplant the 3D-printed heart in animal models.
Heart transplants are the only form of treatment for people with end-stage heart failure and many sick people die while waiting for a transplant, which can take six months or more. Papillomas can be benign or malignant and can be found in numerous anatomical locations (eg, skin, conjunctiva, cervix, breast duct). Specifically, conjunctival papillomas are benign squamous epithelial tumors with a minimal propensity toward malignancy.
Conjunctival papillomas are categorized into infectious (viral), squamous cell, limbal, and inverted (histological description) based on appearance, location, patient's age, propensity to recur after excision, and histopathology. They demonstrate an exophytic growth pattern. Interestingly, inverted papillomas exhibit exophytic and endophytic growth patterns.