• Inguinal canal: The swelling of an inguinal hernia lies above the medial end of the inguinal ligament. The sac of a femoral hernia lies below and lateral to the pubic tubercle.
• Superficial inguinal lymph nodes
• Great saphenous vein: A localized dilatation of the terminal part of the great saphenous vein, a saphenous varix, can cause confusion.
• Psoas sheath: Tuberculous infection of a lumbar vertebra can result in the extravasation of pus down the psoas sheath into the thigh.
• Femoral artery: Aneurysm of the femoral artery.