Dr Abdul Wajid
Dr Abdul Wajid3 months ago

Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is a common type of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia characterized by uncoordinated atrial activation that results in an irregular ventricular response. While the exact mechanisms of Afib are poorly understood, associations with a number of cardiac (e.g., valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease) and noncardiac (e.g., hyperthyroidism, electrolyte imbalances) risk factors have been established. Individuals with Afib are typically asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur, they usually include palpitations, lightheadedness, and shortness of breath. Physical examination typically reveals an irregularly irregular pulse. Ineffective atrial emptying as a result of Afib can lead to stagnation of blood and clot formation in the atria, which in turn increases the risk of stroke and other thromboembolic complications. Diagnosis is confirmed with ECG showing absent P waves (replaced by fibrillatory waves) with irregular QRS intervals. Echocardiography is used to rule out structural heart disease and to evaluate for any atrial thrombi. Immediate synchronized cardioversion is required in hemodynamically unstable patients. In stable patients, treatment involves the correction of modifiable risk factors, rate or rhythm control strategies, and anticoagulation. Rate-control therapy typically involves the use of beta blockers or nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. Rhythm control strategies include synchronized electrical cardioversion, the use of pharmacological antiarrhythmics (e.g., flecainide, propafenone, or amiodarone), and ablation of the arrhythmogenic tissue. Anticoagulation therapy is used in patients with high-risk comorbidities, such as valvular disease and cardiomyopathy, and may be used in patients categorized as lower-risk depending on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Atrial flutter is another common type of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia that is usually caused by a single macroreentrant rhythm within the atria. The risk factors for atrial flutter are similar to those of Afib. In atrial flutter, the ventricular rhythm is usually regular. Treatment is also similar to that of Afib, consisting of anticoagulation and strategies to control heart rate and rhythm. Atrial flutter frequently progresses to Afib.

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