This is a neurosurgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed to allow a swollen brain space to expand without being compressed. It is performed on victims of traumatic brain injury, stroke and other conditions associated with increased intracranial pressure.
In patients with infarction that occupies a large space as a result of ischemic stroke, the subsequent edema complicated by transtentorial hernia represents a lethal threat. Especially in patients with malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery, cerebral edema secondary to vessel occlusion is associated with high mortality. Through decompressive craniectomy, a significant proportion of the skull is surgically removed, allowing the ischemic tissue to move through the surgical defect rather than into the unaffected regions of the brain, thereby preventing secondary damage due to increased intracranial pressure